What Is Derivation.? Derivation Adalah
In morphology, Derivation is the process of creating a new word out of an old word, usually by adding a prefixor a suffix. Adjective: derivational.
Linguist Geert Booij notes that one criterion for distinguishing derivation and inflection "is that derivation may feed inflection, but not vice versa. Derivation applies to the stem-forms of words, without their inflectional endings, and creates new, more complex stems to which inflectional rules can be applied" (The Grammar of Words, 2005).
Derivational change that takes place without the addition of a bound morpheme (such as the use of the noun impact as a verb) is called zero derivation or conversion.
See Examples and Observations below. Also see:
- Back Formation
- Denominal Adjective, Denominal Noun, and Denominal Verb
- Derivational Morpheme and Inflectional Morpheme
- Inflectional Morphology
- Introduction to Etymology: Word Histories
- Where Do New Words Come From?
- Word Family and Word Formation
From the Latin, "to draw off"
EXAMPLES AND OBSERVATIONS
- "Derivational morphology studies the principles governing the construction of new words, without reference to the specific grammatical role a word might play in a sentence. In the formation of drinkable from drink, or disinfect from infect, for example, we see the formation of new words, each with its own grammatical properties."
(David Crystal, How Language Works. Overlook Press, 2005
- Derivation versus Inflection
(Steven Pinker, Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language. Basic Books, 1999)
- "The distinction between inflectional morphology and derivationalmorphology is an ancient one. Fundamentally, it is a matter of the means used to create new lexemes (derivational affixes among other processes) and those used to mark the role of the lexeme in a particular sentence (accidence, inflectional morphology). . . .
"It seems that although we probably can maintain a distinction between inflectional and derivational morphology relatively well in English--albeit with certain problematical cases which do not invalidate the fundamental notion--the distinction is not helpful to us in understanding any other aspects of the morphology of English. The classification might be useful in terms of typology, but does not throw much light on the behaviour of English morphological processes."
(Laurie Bauer, Rochelle Lieber, and Ingo Plag, The Oxford Reference Guide to English Morphology. Oxford University Press, 2013
- Derivation, Compounding, and Productivity
"Morphological patterns that can be systematically extended are called productive. The derivation of nouns ending in -er from verbs is productive in English, but the derivation of nouns in -th from adjectives is not: it is hard to expand the set of words of this type such as depth, health, length, strength, and wealth. Marchand (1969: 349) has observed some occasional coinings like coolth(after warmth) but notes that such word coinings are often jocular, and hence do not represent a productive pattern. If we want to coin a new English noun on the basis of an adjective, we have to use -ness or -ity instead."
(Geert Booij, The Grammar of Words: An Introduction to Linguistic Morphology. Oxford University Press, 2005
- Changes to Meaning and Word Class: Prefixes and Suffixes
- patient: outpatient
- group: subgroup
- trial: retrial
- adjective--dark: darkness
- verb--agree: agreement
- noun--friend: friendship"